Encyclopedia : Phylogeny and Genetics

List of genes in the morning glory, Ipomoea nil

Copyright 1998-2004 Yoshiaki Yoneda

Gene symbol English name, Japanese name Linkage group number
a-l a-l white, a-1 Siro IV
White flower with green stem. Corolla sometimes faintly colored, due to environment. + a-l is a basic complementary gene of color for developing flower color with + ca, + c-1, + r-l, + r-2, + r-3 and + c-3.
a-lf flecked-l, Sobakasu-l VI
Corolla has small spots of anthocyan, and flower tube is colored. Allelic to a-1.
a-2 a-2 white, a-2 Siro V
Similar to a-1 white.
a-3 a-3 white, a-3 Siro V
Similar to a-1 white.
a-3f flecked-2, Sobakasu-2 V
Similar to a-3. Sometimes striped in hypocotyl. Flower with small anthocyanin flakes. Mutable, producing normal flowers. Samples [flecked, Sobakasu ]
a-4 a-4 white, a-4 Siro I
Similar to a-l white. being duplicate gene to a-1, a-2, a-3.
ab albescent, Taihakushoku
Cotyledon with white or whitish smear; cotyledonary petiole pale or white. Bud appearing between cotyledons distinctly white. First one or two leaves of seedling whitish, but not permanently so; leaves of grown-up plant apparently green or normal. Viability of seedling somewhat low. Fertility normal.
ac Acuminate, Nanten IV
Stalk broadened at junction of cotyledon. Lamina deeply lobed and sharp-pointedGlobes rolling backwards; sometimes compound. Corolla funnel-shaped, with narrow opening; margin turned outward, and sometimes split irregu1arly. Flower tube comparatively long. Fertility is low. Samples [ acuminate 1, Nanten 1 ; acuminate 2, Nanten 2 ; Straw coat leaf, Blown maple delicate, Minoba ; Treasure straw coat leaf, Blown maple delicate acuminate, Takara-monoba ; Bat-shaped nandin leaf or bat-shaped acuminate leaf, acuminate cordate, Koumori-nanten ]
al albino, Sirako
There is a extremely little snow white almost, and the cotyledons include chlorophyll. It dies after germination in 10-14 days.
am amber, Kohaku
Cotyledon vivid yellow early and light yellow later; die for a while after germination.
ar anchor, Ikariba
Petiole broadened at junction of lamina, but not crooked.
B-l Blown-l, Rinpuu-l I
Stalk broadened at junction of cotyledon, and also base of lamina, working it crooked. becomes big in basal part of the cotyledons. Samples [ Blown, Rinpuu ; Blown maple, Rinpuu-tatuta ; Straw coat leaf, Blown, maple, delicate, Minoba ; Treasure straw coat leaf, Blown maple delicate acuminate, Takara-minoba ]
B-2 Blown-2, Rinpuu-2 VIII
Less conspicuous than Blown-1.
B-3 Blown-3, Rinpuu-3 V
Similar to B-1. Manifesting Blown character by cooperation with B-1, B-2.
b-4 blown-4, Rinpuu-4
Still less conspicuous than the preceding; hardly noticeable in upper leaves.
bb-l bobbed-l, Danpatu-1 II
Hairs bobbed. It is easy to look at hair of a calyx.
bb-2 bobbed-2, Danpatu-2 I
Short hairs.
bd broad, Futoba
Median lobe of leaf broad, like normal heterozygous for cordate; somewhat deformed.
bf buff, Tanou-syuhi
Seed color lighter than brown.
Bh Bushish, Gunseiyou III
Small leaves,bushing habit, similar appearance with bushy character manifested by bs.
bk broken, Yabure
Leaf deeply lobed. Corolla irregularly split.
br brown, Kasshokusyuhi I
Seed coat brown more brightly than cocoa color.
brm Brown mutable, Ihensei-kasshokusyuhi I
Dominant gene allelic to br. Mutable.
bs Bushy, Sousei III
Leaf small, bush growth. Fertility normal.
bu bush, Sousei
Bush habit; branches grow up together with main stem; only about 2 feet high. Fertility low.
bv brim vein, Hadanugi V
Veins brimmed in the base of lamina. Flower somewhat large.
Bz-1 Blizzard-l, Fubuki-l IV
Manifesting Blizzard under the cooperation of B-2, B-3. Deep-colored stripes or areas occur in light colored background, or vice versa, frequently beautiful whitish spots appear sparsely over the deep colored background.
Bz-2 Blizzard-2, Fubuki-2 X
Similar to B-l.
Bz-3 Blizzard-3, Fubuki -3 X
Similar to B-l.
bz-4 Blizzard-4, Fubuki-4
Recessive blizzard character.
c-1 C-l white, c-l Siro III
White flower with colored stem; flower tube always white. + c-1 is basic complementary gene for color expression with {ca, {c-2, {c-3, {r-1, {r-2, {r-3 and {a.
c-2 C-2 white, c-2 Siro III
The same as above.
c-3 C-3 white, c-3 Siro
The same as above.
ca ca white, Sirosyusi-hakka-l I
White flower with white seed and green stem, flower tube always white. {ca refers to the production of chromogen for anthocyan by the cooperation with {c-2 and {c-3.
cai ivory, Zougesyusi I
Allelic to ca. Seed color ivory, stem green, flower white with white flower tube.
cb cb white, Sirosyusi-hakka-2 III
Production white seed in cooperation with ca.
cd contorted, Nejiume I
Rays of corolla containing chlorophyll, prevent flower from opening completely, making it crooked. Sometimes hard to open without aid.
ch chocolate, Chokoreeto-syuhi
Seed color darker than cocoa.
cl curly, Tizire
Cotyledon small, lamina attaches to petiole in subrectangular, presenting an eddy arrangement of leaves. Completely sterile.
cm-1 crumpled-1, Utikomi-1 I
Lamina uneven, or crumpled. Recessive, but dominant on delicate, creased, crepe, and deformed duplicated phenotypes.
cm-2 crumpled-2, Utikomi-2 IX
Similar to that of crumpled-1.
cm-3 crumpled-3, Utikomi-3 II
Similar to crumpled-1.
cm-4 crumpled-4, Utikomi-4 III
Similar to crumpled-l.
cm-5 crumpled-5, Utikomi-5 II
Similar to crumpled-1.
cm-5D Crumpled-5 dominant, Utikomi-5 yuusei II
Dominant allele to crumpled-5.
cn chesnut, Tankasshoku-syuhi VIII
Light brown seedcoat.
co cordate, Maruba II
Heart-shaped leaf.
coH Hederacea leaf, Hederaseaba (Ipomoea hederacea type leaf)
Introduced by the crossing Ivyleaf morning glory (Ipomoea hederacea(=Pharbitis hedeeracea) ) x Ipomoea nil (=Pharbitis nil). Median lobe of lamina deeply incised and side lobes frequently again lobed.
coa cocoa, Kokoasyuhi
Seedcoat a little darker than brown (br) and lighter than chocolate (ch).
cp crêpe, Tirimen II
Crepe texture of leaf; cup flower variable. Hair on flower bud.
cpr reversed, Daizaki II
Recessive allele of crepe. Flower revered to cup, leaf not crepe and leaf not shrink.
cr cream, Kuriimu III
Creamish flower with a few anthocyanin flakes. Hypocotyl green, sometimes striped. Mutable, frequently reverting to normal solid flower. Linking to Ry-2 instead of Ry-1.
cs criss-crossed, Isidatami X
Flower split down to base of tube; narrow petals crossing one another at neck of tube. Sometimes inspectedly split, with whitish lines or grooves left on tube, where splits. Calyx somewhat broad.
Cse Curved sepal, Magarigaku
Sepal curved. Introduced by species hybrid from Ivyleaf morning glory (Ipomoea hederacea (=Pharbitis hedeeracea) ) x Ipomoea nil (=Pharbitis nil).
ct contracted, Uzu V
Cotyledons and leaf contracted and dark green. Mesophyll thick and brittle. Flower small; so also seed. Sometimes mutable, reverting to normal.
cu couple, Meotozaki I
Two flower buds grow side by side in axil of leaf. The second flower blooming a few days later than the first.
Cy Cream yellow, Kuriimukii III
Cream yellow of ground color in speckled flower.
D Dilute, Genshoku VI
Dilute standard flower color, Ridgeway's "Bradley's blue" to "Amparo blue".
dc deep-crumpled, Fukautikomi
Leaf deeply crumpled.
de deformed, Tenagabotan III
Cotyledon with shallow lobes and long stalk. Petiole long; lamina with thin mesophyll; sometimes deformed. Plant growth peculiar due to a habit of vine. Flower doubled, bearing scarcely any sexual organs.
df deficient, Kakeba
Sometimes fine variegation in cotyledon, with irregular missing of parts. Same character in leaf and flower.
dg-1 drgonfly-lCTonboba-1 VI
Lamina with elongated median lobe and one or two narrow side lobes on either side. Flower somewhat large; rays of corolla rarely exceeding five.
dg-2 dragonfly-2, Tonboba-2 V
Similar to dg-1.
dg-3 dragonfly-3, Tonboba-3 I
Similar to dg-1.
dg-4 dragonfly-4, Tonboba-4 III
Similar to dg-1. Dragonfly compoases of duplicate genes.
dh dwarfish, Isyuku
Dwarf, about 1 foot high. Cotyledon small; contracted-like and sterile.
di djngy, Susuke
Dull color as shown in Ridgway's "Mauve".
dk-1 duskish-l, Nisegaki-1 X
Color of flower more dilute than dusky. Have an unique hue, or when intense Ridgway's "Vinaceous purple". Duskish-l contains the following multiple alleles at least. High-ruled (many lines), medium-ruled (ordinary lines), unstable-plain (unstable solid color), stable plain (stable solid color). Recurrent mutations occur in various ways.
dk-2 duskish-2, Nisegaki-2
Hue as alike as dusky, not duskish-1.
dl delicate, Sasa IX
Cotyledon prominent veins and lobes thin. Leaf with sharp pointed lobes and less-protruding shoulde; mesophyll thin. Flower split into five narrow petals, fertility low. Samples [ delicate, Sasa ; maple delicate, Tatutasasa ; willow delicate, Itoyanagi ; willow delicate single flower, Itoyanagihitoe; willow delicate single flower, Itoyanagihitoe; willow delicate duplicated, Itoyanagi-botan ; willow white split duplicated flower, Yanagi-sirosaizaki-botan ; willow split duplicated flower, Yanagi-saizaki-botan ; delicate duplicated, Sasabotan ; delicate star duplicated, Sasagikyoubotan ; Teratoma of Blown feathered delicate, Rinpuusisisasa no kikei ; straw coat leaf, Blown maple, delicate, Minoba ; treasure straw coat leaf, Blown maple delicate acuminate, Takara-minoba ]
dlm delicate mutable, Fuantei-sasa IX
Dominant allele of delicate, reverting to normal often.
dp duplicated, Botan VI
Flower doubled to core. In the flower exist several folds of flower buds with sepals. These internal buds can open after flowering. Pistil and stamina completely defective. Samples [ duplicated, Botan ; duplicated, Botanzaki ; delicate duplicated, Sasabotan ; feathered duplicated, Sisibotan ; feathered duplicated, Sisibotan ; feathered duplicated, Sisibotan ; feathered duplicated, Sisibotan ; crepe duplicated, Daizakibotan willow deicate duplicated, Itoyanagibotan ; willow white tassel flower duplicated, Yanagi-sirosaizakibotan ; willow tassel flower duplicated, Yanagi-saizakibotan ; delicate star duplicated, Sasagikyoubotan ; ]
dt dotted, dotted flower
Stem and flower dotted with anthocyan, mutable to normal.
dv defective, lack of nourishment
Seed very thin and rusty tan in color; air-dried seed weighting about one-half that of normal. Seedling with small and deformed cotyledons. Less vigorous and fertility low.
dw-1 dwarf-1, Kidachi (or Kodachi)-1 II
Hypocotyl short, with cotyledons of hard texture. Stem thick; about 2.5 feet high, with short internodes. Star-shaped corolla.
dw-2 dwarf-2, Kidachi (or Kodachi)-2 IX
Similar to Kidachi (or Kodachi)-1.
dw-3 dwarf-3, Kidachi (or Kodachi)-3 V
Similar to Kidachi (or Kodachi)-1.
dwy dwarfy, Nisekidachi (or Nisekodachi)
Stem short; internodes short, with overlapping leaves.
dy dusky, Kaki III
This gene expresses so-called maroon flower color; when the color of flower intensified, Ridgway's "Dark hyssop violet". {dy, {dk-1, {dk-2 and {dl complementary to produce such a pure color as blue, purple, magenta and red.
e extended, Zenshokusei-katou VII
Working on fainted, results in full-colored flower tube.
e-ab albescent-enhanced, Taihakushoku-kyousei
Modifying gene which strengthens work of albescent gene. Cotyledons thin, slender and increasing whiteness.
e-cd 1 contorted enhancer-1, Nejiume enhancer-1
Strengthen degree of contorted.
e-cd 2 contorted enhancer-2, Nejiume enhancer-2
Similar to contorted enhancer-1.
e-cm crumpled enhancer, Utikomi-kyouka
It strengthens crumpled.
ef early flowering, Hayazaki
Flowers bloom in early season.
e-sp speckled enhancer, Fukkakesibori-kyouka
Spots of flower increased.
e-Pj projected enhanced, Tokki-kyousei
Modifying gene acts, intensifying projected gene. Produces big projection on leaf.
Ex Expanded, Fukurinkakudai V
White margin extended broadly corolla, leaving star like colored parts.
f-1 fasciated-1, Taika-1 VIII
Fasciated stem caused by three recessive genes, fasciated-1, fasciated-2, fasciated-3. Frequently fails to be fasciated, remaining as normal, due to fluctuating manifestations. Flower sometimes deformed; fertility low.
f-2 fasciated-2, Taika-2 VIII
Works in conjunction with fasciated-1 and fasciated-3.
f-3 fasciated-3, Taika-3 I
One of three genes for fasciated character.
fa fainted, Tanshokusei V
Faintness of flower color, links to duskish-2 (Nisegaki-2)
fd faded, Taishokusei (Kasa) I
Hypocotyl green except lower part, which is faintly colored by anthocyanin pigment. Flower faintly colored; faded flower with a colored ring (Unrin) just inside the white margin, when it carries Margined genotype.
fds smeary, Usuyogore (Simigasa)
Allele of faded. Color of flower dilute, or intensified, Ridgway's "Light violet-blue". Intensely colored ring occurs in inner region adjoining white margin when it carries Margined genotype.
fe feathered, Sisi II
Cotyledon and leaf greatly crumpled or rolled, corolla feathered, with supplementary petaloid pieces, sometimes split irregularly . Fertility usually either low or perfectly low. Samples [ feathered 1, Sisi 1 ; feathered 2, Sisi 2 ; feathered 3, Sisi 3 ; feathered 4, Sisi 4 ; feathered duplicated 1, Sisibotan 1 ; feathered duplicated 2, Sisibotan 2 ; feathered duplicated 3, Sisibotan 3 ; feathered duplicated 4, Sisibotan 4 ]
fec creased, Ranjisi II
Recessive allele of feathered, cotyledon slightly crumpled; leaf nearly flat or slightly crumpled. Flower feathered. Apparently no alternation of sexual organs; fertility low.
fo foliate, Tayousei VII
Modifier of terminal. Peduncle very elongated, bearing crowded small, roundish leaves, frequently with branchlet.
fol folded, Fukurozaki
Bud not open for life; anther not dehisce; sterile.
fr featheroid, Nisejisi
Leaf small; growth less vigorous. Flower small and feathered.
ft faint, Tanshoku-katou V
In magenta or red flower resulted in faintly colored tube, especially at bottom of tube.
g glabrous, Fumousei
Hairs remarkably scanty.
Gb Globose, Imoba II
Leaf roundish; lobes not very conspicuous. Flower large, frequently with more than five rays. "Ebisba-ba" or "Daikoku-ba" concerns with retracted Globose.
gi giant, Kyodaigata
Cotyledon and leaf stout and deep green. Flower large. Fertility very low.
h-1 hair-1, Mouraisei-1 II
Production of hairs on bud as well as manifestation of hair-2 and hair-3. Hairs on top of bud.
h-1D Hair-1 dominant, Yuusei-mouraisei-1 II
Dominant allele of hair-1.
h-2 hair-2, Mouraisei-2 III
Hairs on top of bud.
h-2D hair-2 dominant, Yuusei-mouraisei-2 III
Dominant allele of hair-2.
h-3 Hair-3, Mouraisei-3 I
Hairs on top of bud.
h-3D hair-3 dominant, Yuusei-mouraisei-3 I
Dominant allele of hair-3.
hs hardseed, Katai-syusi
Late germination without preparing by cutting seed coat.
hw-1 half-white-1, Sokojiro-1 V
Lower half white of flower tube.
hw-2 half-white-2, Sokojiro-2 IV
Lower half white of flower tube.
hw-3 half-white-3, Sokojiro-3
Lower half white of flower tube.
i-1 intense-1, Noushokusei-1 V
tensifier of flower color, giving Ridgway's "Dark bluish violet".
i-2 Intense-2, Noushokusei-2 VIII
Intensifying flower color.
ig Interaxial green, Sekkan-ryokushoku
Green cotyledon: Green stem with anthocyanin color on base of branches and peduncles.
Lb Large bract, Daihouyou
Bract large. Introduced from Ivyleaf morning glory (Ipomoea hederacea).
Ln Lined, Tatejima
Irregular stripes on dilute background of corolla; variegation varies considerably.
lp lilliputian, Kobito V
Hypocotyl very short, cotyledon thick, crumpled, and deep green, with very short stalk. Between cotyledons there appears a few thick and crumpled leaves with very short petioles. Seedling stops growth after this stage.
ls lobeless, Mureppen
Leaf roundish; completely sterile. Mutable, reverting to normal.
lt-1 light-1, Tansai-1 III
Color of hypocotyls and stem dilute. Flower also light.
lt-2 light-2, Tansai-2 VIII
Character similar to that of light-1.
lt-3 light-3, Tansai-3
Character similar to that of light -1.
m maple, Tatuta III
Lobes of cotyledon arranged in parallel; vein evident. Leaf lobed deeply like that of maple tree; normal maple five lobed. Flower split regularly, pistil sometimes deformed, fertility low. Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8
mp pine, Matuba III
Cotyledon very small; leaf filiform and pine leaf-like.
mpm pine mutable, Ihensei-matuba III
Allelic to maple. Cotyledons very small; leaf filiform. Flower split very narrow. Highly mutable, reverting to normal.
mw willow, Yanagi III
Recessive allele of maple. Cotyledon with narrow lobes; vein clear. Leaf narrow like that of willow tree. Flower split into five narrow petals. Usually sterile. Mutable, altering to maple; rarely results in normal. sample 1 sample 2 sample 3 sample 4 sample 5 sample 6 sample 7 sample 8
mg magenta, Ankou IV
Flower color purplish red, or Ridgway's "Rood's violet" when intensified. Hypocotyl dark red instead of dark purplish red. Hair white. At times mutable.
mi miniature, Tubame
Cotyledon and leaf very small. Flower also very small and split into five. Blooming in small clusters. Completely sterile.
mim miniature mutable, Ihensei-tubame
Unstable miniature.
Mr-1 Margined-1, Fukurin-1 V
In conjunction with Margined-2 and Margined-3 manifests white margin in corolla. Because the morning glory usually includes Margined-2 and Margined-3, Margined flower and solid color flower segregate into 3 : 1 ratio in F2 when crossed.
Mr-2 Margined-2, Fukurin-2 IV
Complementary to Margined-1 for the manifestation of white margined in corolla.
Mr-3 Margined-3, Fukurin-3 VIII
Complementary to Margined-1 and Margined-2 in producing white margin.
Mr-4 Margined-4, Fukurin -4 I
Probably complementary to Margined-1, Margined-2, Margined-3 for manifestation white margin.
Mr-5 Margined-5, Fukurin-5 III
Probably complementary to Margined-1, Margined-2, Margined-3 and Margined-4 for white margin.
Mr-f Margined fluctuated, Fukurin-henkou III
Modifier of Margined, fluctuating the manifestation of white margin.
Mr-r Margined reduced, Fukurin-kangen V
Modifier of Margined, reducing amount of white margin.
Mr-rs Margined-slight, Keifukurin V
Allelic to Margined-reduced. Producing very small amount of white margin.
ms-1 male sterile-1, Yuusei-funen-1 I
Anther abortive, but ovule normal.
ms-2 male sterile-2, Yuusei-funen-2
Leaf somewhat small, flower also small. Anther usually abortive.
ms-3 male sterile-3, Yuusei-funen-3
Flower small; anther thin, shrivel and colored brownish.
nl non-lobe, Muyokuhen
Working on Globose, results in nearly lobeless leaf. Lamina of non-lobe Globose oblong, sometimes with inconspicuous lobes.
np nipped, Otumami-you
Weaking nipped at tips of rays of corolla.
op oblique-peduncle, Kakou-shasyutu
Peduncle throws out obliquely from axilla, instead of straightly. Introduced from hybrids with Ivyleaf morning glory (Ipomoea hederacea).
p pear, Kujaku VIII
Oblong leaf without side-lobes; side-lobes sometimes develop. Cotyledon with Blown-like character to a very slight degree. Flower somewhat small.
pp pear-petaloid, Yaekujaku VIII
Allelic to pear. Pear leaf. Stamen petaloid from filament to anther; petalody variable.
pb piebald, Madara-syusi
Seed black, sometimes produces spots of dirty yellow. Link to male-sterile-2.
pc precocious, Soujuku II
Early blooming; flower-bud appear on lower nodes of stem.
Pe Pe-peroxidase, Pe peruokisidaaze
Pe1C, pe2C are structural genes of peoxidase isozyme 1C and 2C. PeO is inactivation type.
pg pigmy, Waishou
Cotyledon small; small leaves crowded on very short stem, sterile.
Pj Projected, Tokki
Working to round leaf, produce small projections on its margin. In ordinary leaf, the projections not so clear.
pl Palmate, Shoujouyou II
Leaf five lobed. Flower funnel-shaped.
pp pipy, Kudazaki
Flower small and pipy. Mutable, changing to normal.
pr purple, Murasaki V
When intensified, flower color Ridgway's "Contigna purple". Sometimes mutable.
pt petaloid, Yaezaki
Blooming in double. Stamen petaloid from anther to filament. Marked variation occurs; anther sheds pollen in weak case. Pistil normal.
py polymorphic, Rangiku
Cotyledon with retaracted, roundish lobes, sometimes split, or compound. Leaf split irregularly, with sharp-pointed lobes, but sometimes does not. Corolla creased, with super-numerous rays; often irregularly split. Fertility low.
r-1 r-1-white, r-1 Siro III
White flower with green stem; flower-tube colored or white. Cooperation with {ca, {c-1, {a, {C-2 or {C-3, +r-1 results in colored corolla.
r-2 r-2-white, r-2 Siro
Similar to r-1.
r-3 r-3-white, r-3 Siro
Similar to r-2. {r-1, {r-2 and {r-3 are complementary genes.
re-1 retracted-1, Suhama-1 VII
Cotyledon with roundish lobes. Leaf with retaracted lobes; median lobe especially shortened. Corolla large, frequently with over five rays. Fertility low. Current large flowered morning glory all includes this retracted gene.
re-2 retracted-2, Suhama-2 I
Similar to retracted-1.
rt rootletless, Sokkon-fuzen (Musokkon)
Cotyledon usually with shallow lobes. Rootless in early seedling stage; later thick and crooked rootlets appear. Deficiency of rootletless segregates in hybrid progeny due to slow pollen tube growth.
Rt Restricted, Moujou-seigen II
Ristricted distribution of hairs on calyx.
Ry-1 Rayed-1, Kurumasibori-1 V
Flower with colored rays, color fading off in region between rays.
Ry-2 Rayed-2, Kurumasibori-2 III
Complementary to Rayed-1, Rayed-3 for the manifestation of Rayed.
Ry-3 Rayed-3, Kurumasibori-3 III
Similar to Reyed-1.
s star, Kikyouuzu
Similar to contracted except that flower is star-shaped. Samples [ star, Kikyou ; star, Kikyou ; delicate star duplicated, Sasagikyoubotan ]
Sa Striated, Hakemesibori III
Dilute color of flower brushed by five stripes; color somewhat faded off to margin of corolla. Flower-tube white when heterozygous, flaking conspicuous.
sb Shrubish, Hansousei-turu V
Seedling somewhat small. Lobes of leaf sharp-pointed. Leaf of hard texture. Branches occur on lower part of main stem.
sc semi-contracted, Sakaiuzu II
Cotyledon and leaf somewhat thick and brittle. All organs are somewhat contracted. Acuriculata piled up slight than that of contracted.
sd stunted, Ijike
Growth slow and stunted. Stem stunted; leaf crumple; flower irregularly split. Fertility very low.
Sf Shaded off, Futiboke
Flower color fades off gradually into brim from center.
s-fm sterile, Funen
Leaf and flower small. Plant growth poor. Pistil and stamen abortive.
sg-1 stringy-1, Itozuru-1 V
Stem long string like. Branches difficult to produce from main stem.
sg-2 stringy-2, Itozuru-2 III
Similar character to stringy-1. sg-1 manifests stringy as well as stem sg-2.
sh shrubby, Sousei-si
Dwarf, less than 1.5 feet high. Branches crowd, forming bush growth.
si stiff, Sujigane V
Flower somewhat hard to open on account of being stiff in rays.
Sl Stellate, Hosigata-kashoku
Modifier of Margined, working on homozygous Margined flower, white margin broadly extended, leaving colored star-shape part in corolla.
sn syncotyI, Siyou-yuuchaku
Two cotyledons jointed, becoming cup-like. Sterile.
sp-l speckled-1, Fukkakesibori-1 III
Hypocotyl and stem speckled with anthocyanin pigment. Fine spots distributed over corolla. Speckling varies considerably.
sp-2 speckled-2, Fukkakesibori-2 III
Similar to speckled-1.
sp-d speckled-decolorizer, Fukkakesibori-dasshoku III
Modifier of speckled; similar to speckled-reduced, but decolorizes a few fine spots, resulting in appearance of back ground color.
sp-r speckled-reduced, Fukkakesibori-kangen III
Modifier of speckled. Green hypocotyls, nearly green stem, colored very dilutely by anthocyanin on base of branches and peduncles. Flower with or without a few fine spots on otherwise pale blue, yellowish or white back-ground.
sph spheroid, Marusyusi
Seed small, roundish and brownish.
spl pollen-sterile, Kafun-funen III
Pollen sterile.
spr spiral tortion, Rasenmaki VIII
Spiral torsion of stem or petioles.
spt septalobata, Sitiretu-you
Modifier of maple, producing 7 lobes.
sr-1 side-reduced-1, Hanaba-1 V
Side lobes of leaf retaracted and roundish, so producing nose-like leaf as a whole. Samples [ side-reduced, Hanaba ; Maple nose leaf and white split flower, Tatutahanaba-sirokirezaki ; Maple nose leaf and light purple split flower, Tatutahanaba-usumurasakikirezaki Gourd leaf, Hederacea leaf side-reduced, Hisagoba ; Gourd leaf, Hederacea leaf side-reduced, Hisagoba ; Snail leaf, Hederacea leaf side-reduced dragonfly, Katatumuriba ; Full-cheeked round leaf, retracted side-reduced, Otafukuba ; ]
sr-2 side-reduced-2, Hanaba-2 III
Similar character to side-reduced-1.
st-1 striped-1, Jouhan-1 VI
Stripes occur irregularly on dilute background.
st-2 striped-2, Jouhan-2/td> VIII
Similar to striped-1.
st-3 striped-3, Jouhan-3 III
Similar to both stiped-1 and striped-2.
su-Cy Cream yellow suppressor, Kuriimu-ki-no-yokuatu III
Supress color of cream yellow, producing white ground color of corolla.
su-dg dragonfly-suppressed, Tonboba-yokuatu VII
Working on dragonfly, producing normal three-pointed leaf.
su-g glabrous suppressed, Fumousei-yokuatu
Working on glabrous, producing normal haired leaf.
Su-Mr Margined-suppressed, Fukurin-yokuatu V
Supress expression of Margined, producing solid color flower.
su-nl non-lobe-suppressed, Muyokuhen-yokuatu
Working on non-lobe, producing normal Globose leaf.
su-tw-1 tube color suppressor-1, Katoushoku-yokuatu-1 II
Supress expression of flower tube color, producing white flower tube in cooperation of tube color supressor-2.
su-tw-2 tube color suppressor-2, Katoushoku-yokuatu-2
Similar to flower tube color suppression -1.
sw shallow, Asai-reppen
Cotyledon roundish, with shallow lobing. sterile.
sz-1 size-1, Dairinsei-1
Flower size large, stem and leaf normal.
sz-2 size-2, Dairinsei-2 V
Similar to size-1.
t terminal, Chouseika I
Peduncle with a few axillary flower buds, bearing small leaves without side-lobes. Terminal flower with no bracts; axillary flowers with small bracts. Terminal flowers bloom first.
ta tardy, Noroma
All flower-buds on lower nodes of stem shrink in early stage. Tardy blooming.
tg tinged, Usuiro III
Color of flower considerably diluted.
tl trilobata, Sansenyou
Modifier of maple, reducing number of lobes into three.
tw-1 tube-white-1, Tutujiro-1 V
Flower tube white.
tw-2 tube-white-2, Tutujiro-2 III
Flower tube white.
tw-3 Tube-white-3, Tutujiro-3 IV
Flower tube white.
v-1 variegated-1, Fuiri-1 I
White or whitish variegation in leaf; stem with white stripes. Cotyledon frequently variegated. Seed brownish with black stripe on back. Variegation due to recurrent exomutation and automutation of plastid.
v-2 variegated-2, Fuiri-2 II
Similar to variegated-1.
v-3 variegated-3, Fuiri-3 III
Similar to variegated-1.
v-r variegated-reduced, Fuiri-kangen
Leaf finely variegated with very dilute green color. Variegation somewhat netlike, due to recurrent plastid mutation. Modifier of variegation.
vi virescent, Senryokushoku
Cotyledon and leaf pale green. Viability low, growth slow. Leaf and flower small, due to malnutrition.
vt velvet, Choumou-syuhi
Long hairs on seed-coat.
Wd White-dominant, Yuusei-hakushoku
Inhibiting colored flower, results in white flower.
we weeping, Sidare
Stems and branches have not habit to twin, and hang down.
wl wrinkloid, Siwazaki
Corolla wrinkled, but inconspicuously.
wr wrinkled, Tizimizaki
Corolla wrinkled, somewhat star-shaped, fertility low. Mutable, reverting to normal.
xt xanthic, Senou-siyou
Cotyledon vivid yellow, later light yellow. Mutable, green spots frequently occur in cotyledon. Die without unfolding leaves. Sometimes one or two leaves develop when green areas of cotyledons are large.
y-1 yellow-1, Kiba-1 III
Foliage yellowish green. Samples [ yellow maple, Kibatatuta ; flecked, Sobakasu ]
y-m1 yellow mutable-1, Matusima -1 III
Dominant allele of yellow. Green spots and patches occur in yellow leaf, due to somatic mutation. Mutable, reverting to normal.
y-m2 yellow mutablel-2, Matusima-2 III
Allelic to yellow-mutable-1. Mutability higher than yellow-mutable-1.
y-2 yellow-2, Kiba-2 III
Similar to yellow-1.
ye yellowy, Niseaoba
Cotyledon yellowish green, often with green patches. Young leaf yellowish green and finely mottled with green spots; later, green mottling extends over leaf to such a degree that difficult to distinguish it from normal leaf. Frequently green areas or spots due to somatic mutation occur. Mutable.

  1. Imai, Y. (1930) A genetic monograph on the leaf form of Parbitis Nil. Zeitschr. f. ind. Abst. -u. Vererbgsl. 55:1-107.
  2. Miyake, K. and Imai, Y. (1934) Natural-color illustrated Japanese morning glory. Sanseido.
  3. Imai, Y. (1938) The genes of the Japanese morning glory. Japan. J. Genet. 14:24-33.
  4. Hagiwara, T. (1956) Genes and chromosome maps in the Japanese morning glory. Bull. Res. Coll. Agric. Vet. Sci., Nihon Univ. 5:34-56.
  5. Hagiwara, T. (1956) The Japanese morning glory Genetics Handbook p.168-180 Gihoudou
  6. Takenaka, Y. (1958) Colored illustrations of Japanese morning glory Hokuryukan=
  7. Hagiwara, T. (1977) The Japanese morning glory Morphogenesis and mutation Plant Genetics 4:482-501 Shoukabou
  8. Yoneda, Y. and Takenaka, Y. (1981) Natural color illustrated monograph of Japanese morning glory Hokuryukan

Edited by Yuuji Tsukii (Lab. Biology, Science Research Center, Hosei University)